More often, there appears a great challenge when dealing with the placement of the dental implants in an ideal position. This is caused by the lack of limited alveolar bone. Consequently, augmentation of the limited bone volume before the implant placement is usually required so as to achieve a long term aesthetic result. As a result of this, Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is much needed
What is Guided bone regeneration (GBR)?
This term is used to describe the procedures which aim at regenerating a bone using barrier membranes in those areas which have ridge deficiencies in order to allow the implant placement in the right angulation. Research shows that use of GBR for localized alveolar ridge deficiencies can successfully augment the width of the ridge with new bone at the range of 1.1 millimeter to 5.7 millimeter. Moreover, there is an approximate 3.6 millimeter the gain in the ridge width.
How guided bone regeneration works.
The dental surgery using the guided bone therapeutic procedure consists of the use of barrier membrane. This is done in case there is alveolar ridge defect that is usually requires regeneration of osseous tissue. The use of the membrane is ensure that it creates and maintains a secluded space in order to provide an appropriate surrounding for osteoprogenitor cells for them to migrate, increase and thereby to regenerate the area that is affected.
As this happens, the membrane is able to block the in-growth of the soft tissue into the alveolar ridge defect which could have otherwise interfered or even prevented the osteogenic cells to increase and regenerate to the wound defect.
The initial demonstration of GBR
Initially, this therapeutic benefit of guided bone regeneration was shown in jawbone defect research studies using both rat and rabbit models. This evidence brought about the investigation of guided bone regeneration applications to do the regeneration of the alveolar deficiencies in human beings.
The merits of the barrier membranes
For a long time, different resorbable as well as non-resorbable barrier membranes have repeatedly been used in both clinical and in experimental studies of the GBR treatment. Some of the reasons as to why these membranes have been used include: the fact that cell is excluded, there is stabilization of fibrin clot, they are easy to use, there is space maintenance, and the membranes are resistance to the penetration of the microbes, among other advantages.
It is also important to note that some nonresorbable membranes-for instance, the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) as well as titanium mesh are have been widely used in the clinical practice sector.
The role of mesenchyma stem cells in GBR.
Both mesenchyma and osteoprogenitor stem cells plays a very big role in the entire bone augmentation regeneration procedure. These cells are usually recruited from the surrounding wound environment before they are taken into the osseous defect. Moreover, some progenitor cells for instance, the adult mesenchymal stem cells were recently found in gingival connective tissues called gingival mesencymal stem cells (also known as GMSCs).